Posted on September 17, 2019
Globalization: How It Has Affected Philippine Education And Beyond
Education before the twentieth century become once treated as a domestic phenomenon and establishments for getting to know were as soon as treated as nearby institutions. Prior to the 20th century, schooling became commonly restrained within the confines of a country, completely intended for the intake of its neighborhood citizens. Scholars or college students did now not have to travel miles faraway from their nations of starting place to take a look at and to gain skills which they needed in an effort to traverse the trails in their chosen careers. Moreover, countrywide borders served as impenetrable partitions inside the call of sovereignty. Gaining a university degree and the capabilities entailed with it have been simply for the motive of staunch nationalistic carrier to one’s land of beginning. Furthermore, information of the valleys and the oceans encircling the sector map, in addition to foreign languages and worldwide political regimes had been no longer plenty of an vital. Intercultural exchange was now not big and complicated, if now not tricky. Acceptance and knowledge of cultural range were now not pressured upon everybody, as well as the trap to participate in a globally interconnected world. In different phrases, before the 20 th century, scholastic work have been predominantly simple and restricted inside the nearby, the home, the nearby. They had been confined to at least one’s personal village, one’s own location, one’s personal united states. A pupil had his personal neighborhood as the vicinity in which he is to be born, to be knowledgeable, and later to be of provider to – the neighborhood village that’s his domestic, his network, his Australian College of Community Services and Care.
Nevertheless, the sector has been in a constant kingdom of flux. In the 20 th century onwards, the phenomenon called globalization rose and became the buzzword. Anything which pertained to the time period globalization turned into attributed to modernization, or anything that is updated, if now not better. Part and parcel of this trend is the advent and impossible to resist force of facts technology and records growth thru the wonders of the Internet. The idea of cosmopolitanism – a feel of all of humanity, no matter race, creed, gender, and so on, living in a so-called global village – is any other number one indicator of globalization. Moreover, worldwide media in addition to exchange and investment were unbridled and have befell in a transnational nature. Finally, globalization has worried the uncontrollable movement of students, people, and migrants transferring from one place to any other in search for better employment and residing conditions.
Apparently, globalization appeared to be all-encompassing, affecting all regions of human existence, and that includes education. One indicator of that is the emergence of international education as a concept. Internationalization of schooling is manifested with the aid of catchphrases like The Global Schoolhouse, All the sector’s a study room, One big campus this is Europe, Think worldwide. Act local, and Go West. Students from internationally had been ostensibly persuaded to learn about the arena and to deal with technological advancements, if now not to end up a Citizen of the World. Moreover, globalization and worldwide education are at play, as an example, when talking of Singapore being branded because the Knowledge Capital of Asia, demonstrating the metropolis-state as many of the world’s educational powerhouses; De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines moving into agreements and outside linkages with numerous universities within the Asian vicinity like Japan’s Waseda University and Taiwan’s Soochow University for partnership and guide; the established order of branch campuses or satellites in Singapore of American and Australian universities like the University of Chicago and the University of New South Wales, respectively; on-line degree packages being presented to a housewife who’s keen to acquire some schooling in spite of her being occupied with her motherly obligations; college students taking semesters or observe-abroad applications; and ultimately the call for to examine English – the lingua franca of the current educational and business global – with the aid of non-conventional speakers, just like the Chinese, the Japanese, and the Korean college students exerting efforts to study the language in order to qualify for an area in English-speakme universities and workplaces. Apparently, all of those promote international schooling, convincing its potential purchasers that during state-of-the-art on-going frenzy of competition, a effective pressure to enhance one’s self-funding is to go away their houses, fly to another us of a, and absorb internationally relevant publications. Indeed, globalization and global training have altogether recommended students to get to realize their international higher and to get involved with it extra.
Boston College’s Center for International Higher Education director and International Education professional Philip Altbach asserted in his article “Perspectives on International Higher Education” that the elements of globalization in better schooling are widespread and multifaceted. Clear signs of globalization tendencies in better training which have move-national implications are the subsequent:
1. Flows of college students across borders;
2. International department and offshore campuses dotting the landscape, mainly in developing and middle-profits international locations;
three. In American colleges and universities, applications aimed at offering an global attitude and go-cultural abilties are rather famous;
4. Mass higher education;
five. A worldwide market for college kids, faculty, and distinctly knowledgeable employees; and
6. The international reach of the new ‘Internet-based’ technology.
Moreover, European Association of International Education professional S. Caspersen supported that internationalization affects the subsequent areas: Curriculum, language education, studies and schooling abroad, teaching in foreign languages, receiving overseas college students, using foreign body of workers and guest teachers, offering teaching materials in foreign languages, and provision of worldwide Ph. D. Students. Nevertheless, globalization’s objective of a “one-size-suits-all” tradition that would ease international transactions has no longer regarded to be applicable to all the international locations of the world. In the words of Nobel Laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz, globalization’s consequences are dualistic in nature. Globalization itself is neither properly nor bad. It has the strength to do large appropriate. But in a lot of the sector, globalization has now not introduced similar blessings. For many, it seems towards an unmitigated disaster. In Andrew Green’s 2007 e book, “Education and Development in a Global Era: Strategies for ‘Successful Globalisation'”, he asserted that optimists might seek advice from the rise of East Asian tigers – Japan, China, and South Korea – as globalization’s achievement stories. But those are only a minority of the arena’s hundred countries. A majority has remained of their growing conditions, amongst these is the Philippines.
In phrases of international training being located inside the Philippines, universities have incorporated in their task and imaginative and prescient the values of molding graduates into globally aggressive professionals. Furthermore, Philippine universities have gone through internationalization concerning the recruitment of overseas teachers and college students and collaboration with universities remote places. English training has additionally been intensified, with the language being used as the medium of training other than the prevailing Filipino vernacular. Finally, Philippine better training, for the duration of the onset of the twenty first century, has bolstered the presenting of nursing and facts era publications due to the call for of foreign nations for these graduates.
In phrases of student mobility, although gaining an international schooling thru analyzing abroad like within the United States is deemed mind-blowing, if no longer superior, through maximum Filipinos, the idea of practicality is overriding for maximum college students. Study-abroad endeavors are not popular among the modern-day generation of students. The regular outlook is that it isn’t always realistic to look at foreign places manifestly because of the expenses – lessons expenses, living expenses, accommodation, and airfare. Although economic aid may be to be had, they’re hugely constrained. There may be numerous universities that provide merit or educational scholarships, expertise scholarships, athletic scholarships, teaching assistantships, studies assistantships, complete or partial training price waivers, however certainly there is absolutely now not a number of pupil cash. Apparently, worldwide education is understood as a international issue, a worldwide commodity, and exceptionally, a privilege – and therefore, it is not for everybody. Hence, analyzing in America is a trifling choice for folks that can afford to pay the expenses entailed in analyzing overseas.
The Philippines is a Third World us of a that is closely inspired by means of advanced international locations just like the United States. Globalization may have affected it definitely in a few methods, but a big chunk of its effects has been leaning to the detriment of the Filipinos. Globalization has broadly speaking affected not best the usa’s education system but even beyond it – economically and socially. These include mind drain, declining satisfactory in schooling because of profiteering, hard work surplus, vulnerability of its people foreign places, and declining family values.
For one, the Philippines is a migrant-worker us of a. This phenomenon of sending its worker’s (additionally known as Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs) abroad to work and to send money returned home has been intensified by using globalization. Brain drain – or the exodus of talented and professional citizens of a rustic shifting to commonly evolved countries for better employment and living conditions – is one trouble that has been stepped up by globalization. The Philippine overseas policy of hard work diplomacy started out within the Seventies whilst rising oil expenses brought on a boom in settlement migrant hard work within the Middle East. The government of dictator Ferdinand Marcos, from the mid-Nineteen Sixties to the mid-Eighties, noticed an possibility to export younger men left unemployed with the aid of the stagnant economy and installed a system to alter and inspire exertions outflows. This state of affairs has led Filipinos to observe publications like nursing which would comfy them employment remote places rather than in their home us of a. For extra than 25 years, export of transient labor like nurses, engineers, facts generation practitioners, caregivers, entertainers, domestic helpers, factory people, construction employees, and sailors were despatched overseas to be hired. In go back, the Philippine economy has benefited thru the economic remittances despatched through those OFWs. In the ultimate zone of 2010, the Philippine financial system won more or less $18.Seventy six billion in remittances which largely got here from OFWs primarily based within the United States, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, Japan, United Arab Emirates, Singapore, Italy, Germany, and Norway.
Second, the call for for distant places employment by means of those Filipino professionals has affected the high-quality of the nearby schooling gadget inside the shape of fly-by using-night, substandard colleges which have been simplest aimed toward profiteering. A Filipino legislator, Edgardo Angara, as soon as aired his problem over the unfold of many schools which give courses believed to be demanded in overseas international locations and the declining best education. Angara located that the Philippines has an excessive amount of get right of entry to to schooling versus nice education. For example, for every 5 kilometers in this united states, there’s a nursing faculty, a computer college, a care-giving faculty, and a cosmetic college. Angara advised that lawmakers and educators need to find a happy formula for fine schooling.
Third, hard work surplus is another dire impact of globalization. In 2008, the phenomenon of brain drain started out to subside in the Philippines. This period changed into when the USA began to experience a monetary turmoil which became contagious, distressing countries round the sector that are established to its economic system. In the Philippines, it has been surmised that the call for for nurses has already died down because the need for them has already been crammed. For example, the US has decided that in place of outsourcing overseas nurses, they have got resorted to employing neighborhood hires to mitigate its neighborhood problem of rising unemployment. As a result, this incident has receded the phenomenon of a majority of Filipino college college students taking up nursing. And the unfortunate result is the exertions surplus of nursing graduates. This quandary which has been caused by a Third World u . S . Such as the Philippines seeking to address globalization’s function of hard work outflows has left Filipinos on a double whammy. Over 287,000 nursing graduates are presently both jobless or hired in jobs apart from nursing. Nursing graduates nowadays suffer task mismatch, taking over jobs which can be exceptional from their subject of specialization like operating for call facilities, serving as English tutors, if now not remaining unemployed because the Philippine hospitals have little to no vacancies in any respect that are purported to be occupied via the large variety of nursing graduates. Furthermore, these specialists are generic with the aid of hospitals or clinics as volunteers with little to no economic blessings, or as trainees who’re careworn with the policy of forcibly paying the hospitals for his or her training.
Fourth, a dilemma that globalization has confused the Philippines is the vulnerability of its remote places workers. For instance, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, United Arab Emirates, and Taiwan, have had no desire but to put off and repatriate their Filipino visitor people in mild of the global financial disaster. Furthermore, the threat of Saudization is a present subject within the Philippines nowadays. Presently, round 1.Four million OFWs in Saudi Arabia are in chance of losing their jobs due to the fact the Arab state is imposing a Saudization software a good way to prioritize their Arab residents for employment. To date, with more than 1.Five million OFWs, Saudi Arabia is the u . S . Which has the best attention of OFWs. It is the most important hirer of Filipino Workers and has the largest Filipino populace inside the Middle East. As Saudi Arabia hosts a majority of OFWs, the trouble of these Filipino workers dropping their jobs and returning to their homeland wherein employment opportunities are scarce is a country wide chance. Furthermore, the present day country wide instability in nations like Syria and Libya has threatened the lives of the OFWs, who still have selected to live in their overseas workplaces due to financial reasons which they locate weightier vis-à-vis their protection.
Finally, globalization has resulted to social charges which involve challenges to Filipino households. Possessing close own family ties, Filipino households sacrifice and allocate enormous amounts of financial assets for you to help their kin. Filipino dad and mom have the notion that via schooling, their kids are assured with promising futures and achieving respectable lives. Thus, given the constrained employment opportunities in the Philippines which might be unable to help the wishes of the family, one or both mother and father leave to paintings outside the united states. As a end result, Filipino youngsters, despite the fact that their academic dreams and nicely-being are sustained, might ought to live on with one or each mother and father far from them. They would then need to address living with an prolonged family member consisting of aunts, uncles or grandparents who’re left to attend to them. This has disadvantaged Filipino kids of parental guide and steering as they may be separated from the number one members in their circle of relatives.
In fact, even though Filipino households have experienced the monetary advantages of a family member uprooting himself from the u . S . To paintings overseas, this trend has not been loved via most of the people of Filipinos. The poorest of the poor can’t have enough money to go away and paintings distant places. Also, with risky marketplace forces, the fee of the US greenback which is used because the currency of OFW salaries vacillating, rising gasoline fees and toll charges in highways, and the ongoing surge within the cost of dwelling within the Philippines, in widespread, globalization has precluded lengthy-term economic boom for the us of a, with the masses suffering a first rate deal. Moreover, with human capital and technological know-how vital to growth, the Philippines suffered with globalization through losing its experts to the advanced international locations which, however, experienced “mind gain”.
Indeed, globalization has both effective and negative consequences, however in the Philippine case, it’s far greater on the terrible. It is justified to mention that globalization is an “choppy process” and that maximum least developing countries did not develop extensively in mild of globalization. Those which predominantly benefited are the affluent and effective international locations of the Western world and East Asia.
The Philippines changed into once taken into consideration as the “expertise capital of Asia”, particularly throughout the Sixties and the Nineteen Seventies. Its gadget of better schooling changed into marked by using excessive standards comparable to its neighboring nations, lots decrease training expenses, and the essential use of English because the medium of coaching. The Philippines, therefore, turned into able to entice students from its neighboring nations, just like the Chinese, the Thais, and the Koreans. However, presently, this once upbeat image has now been replaced by means of a bleak one due to numerous troubles which has lengthy faced the device like finances mismanagement, negative excellent, and activity mismatch, thereby severely affecting its consumers and quit products – the Filipino students. Making topics worse is globalization affecting the graduates of Philippine universities with the aid of luring them to select to work distant places because of the greater economic advantages vis-à-vis the downside of leaving their families home and no longer serving their countrymen. Now that the sector is present process monetary turmoil, the Filipino workers would then need to deal with these dire results of globalization.
Apparently, the Philippines has remained stagnant, in place of the dreams of increasing equality, speedy financial growth thru integration into the worldwide marketplace, and the huge distribution of social improvements in much less advanced nations. These culmination of globalization, unluckily, did now not trickle down a excellent deal to the Philippines. Hence, although overseas employment has been a legitimate alternative for the local people, it is high time that the Philippine authorities encourage schools and universities to provide programs which are relevant to the nature of this notably agricultural u . S . Like agriculture-related courses as these could play a sizeable position in placing the Philippine economy in motion towards improvement. The populace increase on this u . S . A ., that’s usually reckoned as a number of the united states of america’s predicaments because the surging quantity of Filipinos is circuitously proportional to the employment opportunities to be had, ought to be taken benefit of by means of encouraging the surplus of people to expand employment and improve the rural farmlands. Affluent Filipino households who personal massive conglomerates must additionally participate in growing extra employment opportunities and inspiring dignified exertions conditions on the way to mitigate the dismal fashion of labor migration. Moreover, as opposed to adopting guidelines imposed through powerful Western nations like the United States and going with the glide, the Philippine government ought to work in reinforcing the welfare of its residents extra than whatever else. (Sheena Ricarte, August 31, 2011).